ASSESSMENT – BMMA STUDY OF ANGANWADIS IN NAVPADA AND BHARATNAGAR MUSLIM GHETTOS

BHARATIYA MUSLIM MAHILA ANDOLAN [BMMA]
ANGANWADI SURVEY REPORT
INTRODUCTION:
The Indian government on 2nd October 1975 launched the Integrated Child Development Services (Scheme) to combat child hunger and malnutrition.
Objectives: 
1.     To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years;
2.     To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
3.     To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
4.     To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation amongst the various departments to promote child development; and
5.     To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child through proper nutrition and health education.
Services: The above objectives are sought to be achieved through a package of services comprising:
Services
Target Group
Service Provided by
Supplementary Nutrition
Children below 6 years & Pregnant & Lactating Mother (P&LM)
Anganwadi Worker and Anganwadi Helper
Immunization*
Children below 6 years & Pregnant & Lactating Mother (P&LM)
ANM/MO
Health Check-up*
Children below 6 years & Pregnant & Lactating Mother (P&LM)
ANM/MO/AWW
Referral Services
Children below 6 years & Pregnant & Lactating Mother (P&LM)
AWW/ANM/MO
Pre-School Education
Children 3-6 years
AWW
Nutrition & Health Education
Women (15-45 years)
AWW/ANM/MO
*AWW- assists ANM in identifying the target group.
  ANM – Auxiliary Nurse Midwife
  MO    – Medical Officer
Anganwadi is a Hindi word meaning “courtyard shelter” in Hindi. The Anganwadi workers play an important role in the implementation of the ICDS which includes
1.     Conducting survey of the village / community and collecting data.
2.     Keeping records of new born babies and children below the age of 6 and ensure that all are immunized /received vaccinations on a regular basis.
3.     Visiting and providing antenatal care for pregnant women and ensuring that they are immunized against tetanus.
4.     Provide post natal care to nursing mothers.
5.     Provide supplementary nutrition to both children below the age of 6 as well as nursing and pregnant women.
6.     Ensure that regular health and medical check-ups of women between the age group of 15 to 49 years and that all women and children have access to these check-ups.
7.     They also need to work towards providing pre-school education to children who are between 3 to 5 years old.
Educational Qualification:
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Empowerment of Women has suggested fixing class X and class VIII as minimum qualifications for the job of Anganwadi workers and helpers respectively.
“No minimum educational qualifications have been prescribed by the government for anganwadi workers and helpers though they are expected to perform a wide range of functions,”
The Anganwadi is also a source of income/employment for many 
1.     The Anganwadi Mukiyasevika, workers, helpers are mainly poor women.
2.     The houses owners from where the Anganwadi operates receive a small amount as rent.  
3.     The food orders provided to the Anganwadi are given to Bachatgad groups.
Institutions / Organisations:
1.     Anganwadi centres, its workers and helpers :  Delivery of services under ICDS scheme
2.     The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare : The services of Immunisation, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure
3.     UNICEF has provided essential supplies for the ICDS scheme since 1975.
4.     World Bank has also assisted with the financial and technical support for the programme. The cost of ICDS programme averages $10–$22 per child a year. The scheme is centrally sponsored with the state governments contributing up to INR1.00 (1.7¢ US) per day per child.
5.     The Government of India (GOI) adopted World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for measuring and monitoring the child’s growth and development, both for the ICDS and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). These standards were developed by WHO through an intensive study of six developing countries since 1997. They are known as New WHO Child Growth Standard and measure of physical growth, nutritional status and motor development of children from birth to 5 years age.
ASSESSMENT BY BMMA-ASHANA TRUST:
Rationale for the study:
BMMA-Ashana Trust has been working in the communities of Bandra east for many years. It was decided that now BMMA will further concentrate on two Muslim ghettos, namely, Naupada and Bharat Nagar. This work will involve studying the Govt scheme and the awareness and utilisation of such scheme by the community. Develop local leadership of Muslim women to help improve the social and economical growth of the community through various means, one being implementation of Govt. Schemes. The data thrown up will empower the leadership to work on strategies to address these concerns. The data will also help BMMA to work on long term strategies to ameliorate the difficult conditions.
Universe of the Survey:
Naupada and Bharat Nagar are the two areas that have been chosen to be the universe for this survey. Both these areas are a ghetto of the marginalized Muslim community located in Bandra (East) in the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. This survey was conducted by the Ashana Trust between April–May’2013.
Purpose of the Survey:
·  To understanding the working of the Anganwadi centres, workers and helpers.
·  To understand and study the problems faced by the Anganwadi workers while working in the community.
·  To understand the awareness of the community about the Anganwadi and access the impact on the community.
·  To empower themselves through awareness to address these requirements.
·  To provide data for future impact assessment and planning of intervention strategies
Data Collection:
A simple questionnaire was prepared and the data was collected through interviews. A survey was conducted on a random basis of 116 and 100 families each in Naupada and Bharat Nagar respectively. The data was collected from the Anganwadi workers, parents of children going to the Anganwadi and the people from the community.


Analysis :
1.     No. of Working Hours of Anganwadi ?
The official working hours of Anganwadi workers is from 11am. to 3pm. i.e. minimum 4 Hrs per day. The workers are supposed to conduct Balwadi for Min. 2 hours for children between the age group of 2-6 Yrs but in reality it is less than 2 hours. They have to maintain various data each child coming to the Anganwadi, write various reports, visit the community ect.  They also have to conduct various Govt. related surveys.        
2. Do the Workers teach Songs & poetry daily
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
1
26
100
Naupada
60
3
53
116
Grand Total
133
4
79
216
Nearly all Anganwadi workers do teach the children songs and poetry as per the above mentioned figures 79 said Yes, 4 said No whereas 133 said they were not aware as their child were big and did not go to the Anganwadi. Few Anganwadi workers only give the snacks to the children. The objective of the parents for sending the child to Balwadi is that they learn to stay alone and interact with other children.  
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRNTv-hpKJTsGOasjmML0p6Ims0w_6twNfQ_MasImPjS22FjMvSrw                                                                              
3. Do the Workers conduct games / activity of the mind & body
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
2
25
100
Naupada
60
17
39
116
Grand Total
133
19
64
216
 As per the above figure 64 said Yes V/s 19 No and 133 said they were not aware. The rent provided by the Govt is very petty hence the Anganwadi workers rent out people houses for 4-5 hours. The houses are small of 100-150 Sq Ft. Space constrain is makes it next to impossible to conduct games or physical activities. Other activities are conducted from time to time within the space available.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJnoumRyNj-0BL92k-KilaICDDKVUJ7H2UlafIVcH4iVhUJZYNrA
 
4. Do the workers read story for the children
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
1
26
100
Naupada
61
10
45
116
Grand Total
134
11
71
216

The above figures state 71 people agreed that stories were read to the children V/s 11 said that no stories were read and 134 said they were not aware.
Most Anganwadi workers do read story to the children but there are few Anganwadi workers only provide snacks to the children. Few parents are not aware of the activities conducted for the child.
http://www.treasuregurus.com/components/com_virtuemart/shop_image/product/Wood_Framed_Anti_4eaf479c70c91.jpg5. Do the workers conduct activities to encourage to read & write
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
27
100
Naupada
61
8
47
116
Grand Total
134
8
74
216
74 agreed that the children in the Anganwadi were taught to read and write v/s 11 that said that they were not taught to read and write and 134 said they were not aware. The smaller ones are not forced to read & write whereas the older ones are encouraged to write. Few parents are not aware of the activities conducted for the child.


6. Are the children taught Nos & Count
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
2
25
100
Naupada
61
7
48
116
Grand Total
134
9
73
216
74 agreed that the children are taught Nos and Count v/s 9 that said that they were not taught numbers and counting and 133 said they were not aware.
Children in the Anganwadi vary from the age of 2-6 hence they do not force the smaller one to read & write. The older ones are encouraged to write, there are few Anganwadi workers that provide only snacks to the children. Few parents are not aware of the activities conducted for the child.
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRNZFfr_Z3V-fPwF83FwilUkliGvKe1u0KJX8jDBniln9zjJ4PVSQ7. Do they do creative activity (drawing/ clay/craft/colouring)
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
2
25
100
Naupada
61
21
34
116
Grand Total
134
23
59
216
59 agreed that the children are taught some activity i.e drawing/colouring and may be a little of craft v/s 23 that said no creative activity were done and 134 said that they were not aware.
8. Is the child talking/responding to the Anganwadi worker
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
27
100
Naupada
66
5
45
116
Grand Total
139
5
72
216
72 agreed that the children are more active v/s 5 negative response and 139 respondents said that they were not aware.
9. & 10 Do the teachers make use of the things provided by Govt
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
20
7
100
Naupada
63
37
16
116
Grand Total
136
57
23
216
23 agreed that the teachers use the things provided by the Govt v/s 57 said no and 136 were not aware.
http://www.who.int/entity/childgrowth/mgrs/en/cover_mgrs_whitesm.jpg
 
11. Do they keep records of the child growth and provide nutrition 
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
27
100
Naupada
62
5
49
116
Grand Total
135
5
76
216
76 agreed that the teachers keep records of the child v/s 5 said no and 135 were not aware.
The Anganwadi workers confirmed they need to keep records and they do provide these children with extra snacks and tonic if required.


12. Do they follow activities for the children as per Govt. Guidelines?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
100
100
Naupada
93
16
7
116
Grand Total
193
16
7
216
7 agreed that the teachers follow the activities as per the Govt. guidelines and these were the Anganwadi workers v/s 16 that said no and 193 said that they were not aware of the activities prescribed in the Government guidelines.
13(A). Is the anganwadi clean
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
27
100
Naupada
66
2
48
116
Grand Total
139
2
75
216
75 agreed that the Anganwadi are clean v/s 2 who disagreed and 139 said they were not aware. As stated earlier the Anganwadi is conducted in a house with a family living in it. Hence most of the Anganwadi are clean.
13(B). Is the anganwadi Colourful
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
27
100
Naupada
61
54
1
116
Grand Total
134
81
1
216
Only 1 agreed that the Anganwadi was colourful v/s 81 who disagreed and 134 said they were not aware. Since cleanliness and colourfulness were in the same question hence it was further bifurcated. Only one Anganwadi was a little colourful.

14. Do the workers treat the children well
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
73
1
26
100
Naupada
63
3
50
116
Grand Total
136
4
76
216
75 agreed that the Anganwadi workers treat the children well v/s 4 who disagreed and 136 were not aware. Yes majority of the Anganwadi are sweet and treat the children well.
15. Do they conduct test for Young Girls
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
62
32
6
100
Naupada
66
33
17
116
Grand Total
128
65
23
216
Only 23 agreed that they were informed for young girls to get tested vs 65 said No they were not told and 128 said that they were not aware.
16. If Yes ? How many time?
The Anganwadi workers informed a few people only once about the test.


17. Do they provide nutrition to SAM & MAM
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
100
100
Naupada
110
4
2
116
Grand Total
210
4
2
216
Only 2 agreed that the Anganwadi provided nutrition to SAM and MAM v/s 4 disagreed and 210 said they were not aware that the Anganwadi is supposed to do any of these work. The community knows the Anganwadi by the name of Balwadi hence there are not aware.  
18. Check on teacher response & behaviour towards children & distribution of food?
The community is not aware. Only the supervisor maintains certain check.  
19. Registration of Pregnant women.
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
11
2
100
Naupada
97
8
11
116
Grand Total
184
19
13
216
Only 13 agreed that they were registered vs 19 said that they were not registered and 184 said that they were not aware. Few said that the Anganwadi workers did visit and confirmed if she was pregnant but she was not aware if her name was registered or not.
20. Medical care to pregnant women
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
95
12
9
116
Grand Total
182
25
9
216
Only 9 agreed and those from Naupada agreed that they were provided medical care v/s 25 negative response and 182 said that they were not aware.
21. The women are immunized against tetanus?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSA5AtPMcJD6IzN6HHAvfB2CBZDZ_QbmnDDQbeYVKJOGN06S7Wl Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
 Naupada
95
11
10
116
Grand Total
182
24
10
216
Only 10 agreed and those 7 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that claim they have provided medical care v/s 25 negative response and 182 said that they were not aware.
22. Post natal care to nursing mothers?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
 Naupada
99
12
5
116
Grand Total
186
25
5
216
Only 5 agreed and those 4 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that claim that they provide Post natal care v/s 25 negative response and 186 said that they were not aware.


23. Supplementary nutrition to nursing and pregnant women?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
12
1
100
Naupada
95
12
9
116
Grand Total
182
24
10
216
Only 10 agreed of which 7 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that said that they provide supplementary nutrition to pregnant and nursing women v/s 24 negative response and 182 said that they were not aware.
24. Regular health and medical check-ups of women
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
96
13
7
116
Grand Total
183
26
7
216
Only 7 agreed of which all were Naupada Anganwadi workers that said that they inform women to register and encourage them to attain medical check-ups of women v/s s 26 negative response and 183 said that they were not aware.
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSmqDEuMT_XyyHLp41ITEht8tNOl5fs-Gm7p8cckD1_7sKPcWzJyQ
 
25. Anganwadi workers provide care for newborn baby?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
96
12
8
116
Grand Total
183
25
8
216
Only 8 agreed of which 7 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that said care for new born is provided v/s 25 negative response and 183 said that they were not aware.
26. Children below the age of 0-6 are immunized / receive vaccinations?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
94
10
12
116
Grand Total
181
23
12
216
Only 12 agreed of which 7 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that said children below the age 0-6 are immunized vaccination v/s 23 negative response and 181 said that they were not aware.
27. Supplementary nutrition to children below the age of 6?
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
92
10
14
116
Grand Total
179
23
14
216
Only 14 agreed of which 7 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that supplementary nutrition to children below the age 6 are only provided to SAM and MAM children v/s 23 negative response and 179 said that they were not aware.
28. Children have access to these check-ups
Area
Not Aware
NO
YES
 Total
Bharat Nagar
87
13
100
Naupada
99
11
6
116
Grand Total
186
24
6
216
Only 6 agreed of which 5 were Naupada Anganwadi workers that children have access to check-up v/s 24 negative response and 186 said that they were not aware.
Findings :
1.     The Anganwadi is known as Balwadi by the community.
2.     The Anganwadi is a source of Income for the poor Anganwadi workers, for the family were the Balwadi is conducted, the bachatgad that provide snacks for the balwadi.
3.     The Anganwadi workers rent out houses for 4-5 hours. The area of these Anganwadi is 100-150 Sq Ft. The Anganwadi is kept clean but they are not colourful.
4.     The official working hours of Anganwadi workers is from 11am. to 3pm. i.e. minimum 4 Hrs per day in this time the Anganwadi not only supposed to run the balwadi but also have to maintain record of the children, write various reports, visit the community ect.  They also have to conduct various Govt. related surveys.
5.     The Balwadi is functioning pretty well in Bharat Nagar and Naupada. At least there is acknowledgement for the same from the community. Nearly all Anganwadi workers are loving and treat the children well, they teach the children songs and poetry, read story for the children and conduct activities to encourage them to read & write except for 1or 2 Anganwadi workers who only provide snacks to the children.
6.     The taste and quality of snack provided in the Balwadi is poor hence the children do not enjoy the snacks.
7.     Teaching the child Numbers, Counting and encourage creative activity like drawing, craft and colouring are conducted by few Anganwadi workers.  Encouraging the child physical growth through Sports or physical activities is impossible due to space constrain. The community is not aware of the activities prescribed in the Government guidelines hence it is not possible to know possible if the Anganwadi workers are doing their duty.
8.     The objective to ensure the young girls get Hb tested on a regular basis has not being achieved. Only few Anganwadi workers informed 5 girls to get their test done once.
9.     Surveys are not conducted and if conducted the pregnant women is not aware if they are registered or not. They are not provided with medical care, immunisation, supplementary nutrition or postal care or nursing women and regular health and medical check-up ect.  
10.  Supplementary nutrition, Immunisation and medical care for the children between the age of 0 to 6 yrs is also one of the responsibility of the Anganwadi workers which has been shown a poor result as per the survey conducted.
Recommendations to the State
1.     Prepare report of the Anganwadi survey and share the report with our State.
2.     Provide a separate and proper place i.e spacious, colourful, clean and healthy so that the physical development along with the mental development can be ensured.
3.     Surprise checks of the kitchens where the food is prepared to ensure good quality of food.
4.     Ensure that all the needy people in the community receive the benefit.
5.     Hemoglobin Test to be conducted free or at nominal cost as an ongoing process every 3-6 months.
6.     Provide Tonics / Iron tablets as required for a nominal cost.
7.     Minimum education qualifications of Anganwadi Workers and helpers in the urban areas should be should be HSC & SSC pass. Anganwadi workers who do not fulfil the qualification should undergo special course/training and test/exam. 
8.     Training the Anganwadi workers and helpers on the various topics like Leadership, Social Responsibility, Basic Health Checks, Hygiene, First Aid, Self Development, Laws/Rights, Gender Training should be part of an ongoing process to ensure the growth and development of the Anganwadi workers and the community.
9.     Appoint the NGO’s in the area to conduct surprise visits and check if need be and provide reports.
10. Some kind of Penalty for non compliance & rewards and acknowledgement for the compliance.
11. A feedback forms that the parents or benefiters to be update every six months.
Recommendation of Role of NGO’s:
1.     Creating awareness among the community leaders on the duties and role of the Anganwadi workers should play in the community.
2.     The leaders provide information to the Anganwadi workers to ensure that the needy among the community get benefited.
3.     The community leaders need to play the role of an External Auditor. They should keep a check and ensure that the Anganwadi workers do the work they are paid for.
4.     Conduct surprise visit to the Bachatgad supplying the snacks/food to the Anganwadi.
5.     Report to the state every 3 months.
Reference :

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